Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana

手把手搭建Nginx日志高级监控 —— 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana

参考官方文档:

Loki: https://grafana.com/docs/loki/latest/

Grafana Loki V2 Dashboard for Nginx https://grafana.com/grafana/dashboards/12559?pg=dashboards&plcmt=featured-main

日志收集效果截图:

Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana-运维之境
Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana-运维之境

1. Loki + Promtail简介

官网有说明。

简单理解,

Loki是个日志监控系统,可用来分析日志,并提供给Grafana进行图形化展示。

Promtail是个日志转发的代理,用于给Loki提供日志数据的。

2. Loki + Promtail下载并安装启动

wget https://github.com/grafana/loki/blob/main/cmd/loki/loki-local-config.yaml -O loki-config.yaml
docker run --name loki -v $(pwd):/mnt/config -p 3100:3100 grafana/loki:2.1.0 -config.file=/mnt/config/loki-config.yaml
wget https://github.com/grafana/loki/blob/main/clients/cmd/promtail/promtail-docker-config.yaml -O promtail-config.yaml
docker run --name promtail -v $(pwd):/mnt/config -v /usr/local/nginx/logs:/usr/local/nginx/logs grafana/promtail:2.1.0 -config.file=/mnt/config/promtail-config.yaml

脚本来自官网,容器启动后先停止,然后修改配置文件

3. 修改Nginx配置

log_format json_analytics '{'
                          '"msec": "$msec", ' # request unixtime in seconds with a milliseconds resolution
                          '"connection": "$connection", ' # connection serial number
                          '"connection_requests": "$connection_requests", ' # number of requests made in connection
                  '"pid": "$pid", ' # process pid
                  '"request_id": "$request_id", ' # the unique request id
                  '"request_length": "$request_length", ' # request length (including headers and body)
                  '"remote_addr": "$remote_addr", ' # client IP
                  '"remote_user": "$remote_user", ' # client HTTP username
                  '"remote_port": "$remote_port", ' # client port
                  '"time_local": "$time_local", '
                  '"time_iso8601": "$time_iso8601", ' # local time in the ISO 8601 standard format
                  '"request": "$request", ' # full path no arguments if the request
                  '"request_uri": "$request_uri", ' # full path and arguments if the request
                  '"args": "$args", ' # args
                  '"status": "$status", ' # response status code
                  '"body_bytes_sent": "$body_bytes_sent", ' # the number of body bytes exclude headers sent to a client
                  '"bytes_sent": "$bytes_sent", ' # the number of bytes sent to a client
                  '"http_referer": "$http_referer", ' # HTTP referer
                  '"http_user_agent": "$http_user_agent", ' # user agent
                  '"http_x_forwarded_for": "$http_x_forwarded_for", ' # http_x_forwarded_for
                  '"http_host": "$http_host", ' # the request Host: header
                  '"server_name": "$server_name", ' # the name of the vhost serving the request
                  '"request_time": "$request_time", ' # request processing time in seconds with msec resolution
                  '"upstream": "$upstream_addr", ' # upstream backend server for proxied requests
                  '"upstream_connect_time": "$upstream_connect_time", ' # upstream handshake time incl. TLS
                  '"upstream_header_time": "$upstream_header_time", ' # time spent receiving upstream headers
                  '"upstream_response_time": "$upstream_response_time", ' # time spend receiving upstream body
                  '"upstream_response_length": "$upstream_response_length", ' # upstream response length
                  '"upstream_cache_status": "$upstream_cache_status", ' # cache HIT/MISS where applicable
                  '"ssl_protocol": "$ssl_protocol", ' # TLS protocol
                  '"ssl_cipher": "$ssl_cipher", ' # TLS cipher
                  '"scheme": "$scheme", ' # http or https
                  '"request_method": "$request_method", ' # request method
                  '"server_protocol": "$server_protocol", ' # request protocol, like HTTP/1.1 or HTTP/2.0
                  '"pipe": "$pipe", ' # "p" if request was pipelined, "." otherwise
                  '"gzip_ratio": "$gzip_ratio", '
                  '"http_cf_ray": "$http_cf_ray"'
                  '}';
access_log logs/json_access.log json_analytics;

这一步是将Nginx输出的日志文件进行格式化

4. 修改Promtail配置

server:
http_listen_port: 0
grpc_listen_port: 0

positions:
filename: /tmp/positions.yaml

clients:
- url: http://172.17.0.4:3100/loki/api/v1/push  # Loki日志推送地址

scrape_configs:
- job_name: system
   #pipeline_stages:
   #- replace:
   #   expression: '(?:[0-9]{1,3}\.){3}([0-9]{1,3})'
   #   replace: '***'
  static_configs:
    - targets:
        - localhost # 根据官方文档,这里只能是localhost
      labels:
        job: nginx_access_log
        agent: promtail
        __path__: /usr/local/nginx/logs/json_access.log  # 需要上传的日志地址。

5. 重启Loki+Promtail容器

docker restart loki 
docker restart promtail

6. 配置Grafana数据源

Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana-运维之境

7. 配置Grafana模版

模版ID:12559

非常装逼,非常热门

导入方法与本博客多篇日志收集Grafana导入方法相同

Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana-运维之境

8. 查看面板

Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana-运维之境
Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana-运维之境

插件因素显示不全请自行安装,grafana-cli plugins install *

9. 可查看指标

  • 总请求量
  • 状态码 2xx,3xx,5xx请求量
  • 流量情况
  • 请求明细
  • 百分之95请求响应时间
  • 最大请求IP
  • 最大请求路径

10. 国家面板

Country面板无数据,是因为Grafana没有地图面板插件,且Nginx默认没有开启国家城市过滤。

文章最下面进行操作

11. 资源消耗

Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana-运维之境

就这资源消耗,还要啥自行车?要啥ELK?


Ngin添加GeoIP模块

1.1 停止现有Nginx

./nginx -s stop

1.2 带GeoIP重新编译Nginx

1.2.1 下载GeoIP依赖

sudo apt install libgeoip1 libgeoip-dev geoip-bin

github文档如下

Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana-运维之境

1.2.2 进入nginx/sbin目录查看现有nginx模块依赖

./nginx -V
Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana-运维之境

如上图,将红线位置拷贝,用于添加模块重新编译

1.2.3 添加geoip模块重新编译

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx --with-http_gzip_static_module \
--with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module --with-pcre --with-file-aio \
--with-http_realip_module --with-http_geoip_module --add-module=/usr/local/nginx-module-vts-master
make && make install 

1.2.4 执行命令,查看geoip是否编译成功

nginx -V

带 --with-http_geoip_module 即编译成功

1.3. 查看GeoIP.dat位置

root@daicytest01:/usr/local/nginx/sbin# whereis GeoIP
GeoIP: /usr/include/GeoIP.h /usr/share/GeoIP
root@daicytest01:/usr/share/GeoIP# ls -al
total 10012
drwxr-xr-x   2 root root    4096 Feb 17 22:14 .
drwxr-xr-x 121 root root    4096 Feb 17 22:14 ..
-rw-r--r--   1 root root 2099217 Jan 23  2020 GeoIP.dat
-rw-r--r--   1 root root 8138841 Jan 23  2020 GeoIPv6.dat

1.4. 修改nginx配置文件

# 添加国家模块配置
geoip_country /usr/share/GeoIP/GeoIP.dat;

1.5. 重启nginx

nginx -s reload 

1.6. 查看大图

Docker搭建Nginx日志高级监控 — 基于Loki + Promtail + Grafana-运维之境

1.7. 监控日志支持正则匹配

root@daicytest01:/usr/local/nginx/logs# ls
access.log error.log json_access.log json_access.log.2021-02-17 nginx.pid

root@daicytest01:/usr/local/loki+promtail# vim promtail-config.yaml  
static_configs:
     - targets:
         - localhost
      labels:
        job: nginx_access_log
        agent: promtail
        __path__: /usr/local/nginx/logs/*json_access.log*

本文系作者 @ 原创发布在 运维之境。未经许可,禁止转载。

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